Types of Laser Cutting
There are four most common types of laser cutting: laser vaporization cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting, and laser scribing and controlled fracture.
Laser Vaporization Cutting
A laser beam with high energy density is used to heat the workpiece, so that the temperature rises rapidly, reaching the boiling point of the material in a very short time, and the material begins to vaporize to form vapor. These vapors are ejected at a high velocity, and at the same time as the vapors are ejected, cuts are formed in the material. The vaporization heat of the material is generally large, so a large power and power density are required for laser vaporization cutting.
Laser vaporization cutting is mostly used for the cutting of extremely thin metal materials and non-metallic materials (such as paper, fabric, leather, plywood, MDF, wood, plastic, and rubber).
Laser Melting Cutting
When laser melting and cutting, the metal material is melted by laser heating, and then non-oxidizing gas is sprayed through a nozzle coaxial with the beam, and the liquid metal is discharged by the strong pressure of the gas to form a cut. Laser melting cutting does not need to completely vaporize the metal, and the energy required is only 1/10 of the vaporized cutting.
Laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting materials that are not easily oxidized or active metals, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.
Laser Oxygen Cutting
The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to that of oxyacetylene cutting. It uses a laser as a preheating heat source and an active gas such as oxygen as a cutting gas. On the one hand, the blown gas interacts with the cutting metal, and an oxidation reaction occurs, releasing a large amount of oxidation heat. On the other hand, molten oxides and melts are blown out of the reaction zone, forming cuts in the metal. Since the oxidation reaction in the cutting process generates a lot of heat, the energy required for laser oxygen cutting is only 1/2 of the melting cutting, and the cutting speed is much higher than that of laser vapor cutting and melting cutting.
Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for easily oxidized metal materials such as carbon steel, titanium steel and heat-treated steel.
Laser Scribing And Controlled Fracture
Laser scribing uses a high-energy-density laser to scan the surface of a brittle material, so that the material is heated and evaporated into a small groove, and then a certain pressure is applied, and the brittle material will crack along the small groove. The lasers used for laser scribing are generally Q-switched lasers and CO2 lasers.
Controlled fracture is the use of the steep temperature distribution produced by laser grooving to generate localized thermal stress in the brittle material, causing the material to break along the small groove.
Types of Laser Cutting Machines
There are many types of laser cutting machines on the market. According to the cutting materials, they can be identified into metal laser cutters and non-metal laser cutters. According to laser types, they can be divided into fiber laser cutting systems, CO2 laser cutting systems. According to the laser output power classification, It can be classified into high-power laser cutting machine, medium-power laser cutting machine, and low-power laser cutting machine. Different types of laser machines have different uses, let's take a look at them together.
Identify The Types Based On Laser Cut Materials
There are two types of metal laser cutters and non-metallic laser cutters. This is a good distinction. Generally, a laser metal cutting machine is used when metal materials are required, and a laser non-metal cutting machine is used when cutting non-metallic materials.
Classify The Types Based On Laser Generators
According to the type of laser generator, it can be classified into three types: fiber laser, CO2 laser, and YAG laser that has been eliminated. Now the mainstream type in the laser market is the fiber lasers.
Identify The Types Based On Laser Powers
According to the laser power, it can be identified into three types: high-power, medium-power, and low-power. The laser power required by different application fields is also different. In the industrial field, high-power fiber laser cutting machines are the main ones, while in the field of laser engraving, medium-power laser engraving and cutting machines are the main ones.
Define The Types Based On Laser Cutting Tables
The size of the sheet can be defined into two types: standard format and large format, so the laser cutting table can also be defined into two types: standard format laser cutting table and large format laser cutting table. The cutting length in the X-axis direction of the large-format type is mostly more than 8000mm, and the cutting width in the Y-axis direction is mostly 2500mm, while the standard format cutting table is generally about 3000mm×1500mm, and 4000mm×2000mm.
Recognize The Types Based On Laser Cut Shapes
The types of cutting shapes can be recognized into 2D shapes and 3D shapes. 2D shapes are generally cut by flatbed laser cutting systems, while 3D shapes can be cut by robot laser cutting systems and 5 axis laser cutting systems.
Distinguish The Types Based On Structures
According to the structure of the machine, it can be distinguished into cantilever type and gantry type. The cantilever type adopts an open structure, which is convenient for loading and unloading, and has a low cost. It is welcomed by medium and small owners. The gantry type adopts the bilateral drive mode, which has good dynamic performance, high cutting efficiency, and stable and reliable long-term operation.
Discern The Types Based On Applications
According to the applications, it can be discerned into small type and large format type. Generally speaking, small types are used in hobbyists, home shop, and small business. Large format types are used for commercial use and industrial manufacturing.